Visualization, Community Health Nursing* Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis Despite the above reported limitations, we are confident that the findings from this study are a true reflection of the roles CHWs play in T2DM self-management intervention. Peer reviewed scientific and grey literature was searched using a string of keywords, selecting English full-text articles published between 2000 and 2015. More studies will be required to answer question on whether triaging T2DM patients for CHW support will be beneficial overall or less not. The SMART2D consortium includes the following 6 partner institutions: Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Institute of Tropical Medicine, Belgium; Collaborative Care Systems, Finland; Makerere University, School of Public Health, Uganda; University of Western Cape, School of Public Health, South Africa; and Uppsala University, Sweden. Writing – review & editing. The contents of this article are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not reflect the views of the EU. Education curriculum. Training in study policies and procedures, technical skills, and diabetes education alone may not provide CHWs enough capacity to perform the role of health educators, and more may be required[80]. Basel, Switzerland; 2013. Glob Health Action [Internet]. eCollection 2020. Non-inclusion of self-efficacy as part of a CHW led diabetes education intervention outcome could make it difficult to evaluate the actual impact of such intervention or the pathways through which any noted changes occurred. This suggests that CHWs are used to target and focus on chronic glycemic control rather than acute control in T2DM management. here. Writing – review & editing, Roles We conducted a comprehensive literature search in the peer reviewed journal databases PubMed, CINAHL, COCHRANE, Scopus, SAGE, as well as grey literature repositories, Proquest Dissertation and Google scholar. The SMART2D consortium includes the following partner institutions: Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Institute of Tropical Medicine, Belgium; Collaborative Care Systems, Finland; Makerere University, School of Public Health, Uganda; University of the Western Cape, School of Public Health, South Africa; and Uppsala University, Sweden. No criteria were provided about how the duration of CHW training was decided upon in most of the articles. Alaofè H, Asaolu I, Ehiri J, Moretz H, Asuzu C, Balogun M, Abosede O, Ehiri J. Ann Glob Health. Conclusion: There is no direct interaction between CHWs and usual patient care providers in this model (n = 17). Support services included informational, emotional, appraisal and instrumental support. Standardized data collection on disease magnitude, risk factors and mortality statistics. Lehmann and Sanders (2007) noted that CHWs often work peripherally and are not directly coordinated by the health system, which can make it difficult to fully participate in patient management. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Among the twenty-seven interventions where nurses coordinated CHWs, they had designated T2DM intervention activities (n = 7) or performed a regular duty in the facility in addition to facilitating CHW T2DM activities (n = 20). Articles were selected using inclusion criteria, charted and content analyzed. Treating type 1 diabetes . Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Brussels, Belgium; 2015. First, we conducted a descriptive, numerical analysis of the extent and nature of the current literature based on the search output presented in a narrative format, as charts and in table format. Yes Method. None of the studies were conducted in a low income country (LIC). The study conducted in Australia that met our study criteria targeted Aboriginal people who also comprise a minority and disadvantaged group. Diagram showing number of articles…, Fig 2. February;25(1):72–93. About 12% of all health expenditure globally is estimated to be spent on T2DM and its associated complications alone with the majority of countries having to spend between 5–20% of their national health budget on the disease[3]. Beyond treating diabetic patients in a doctor’s office or hospital, nurses can take on the specialized role of diabetes educator. 2020 Sep 11;10(3):121. doi: 10.3390/jpm10030121. Data curation, For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Diabetes mellitus is a global health problem affecting both developed and resource-limited countries. doi: Levitt NS, Puoane T, Denman CA, Abrahams-Gessel S, Surka S, Mendoza C, et al. 2014. Informational support refers only to non-curriculum based information on community resources for T2DM disease management. As observed in our review, increased T2DM knowledge do not always translate into improved glycemic control[48,56,64], which could be due to the fact that increased knowledge did not result in improved self-management. Supervision, Therefore for the primary prevention of diabetes in community as well as proper management of diagnosed diabetes, there is a need to introduce health education and awareness programme by well trained health educators. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/204871/1/9789241565257_eng.pdf, http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=4390559&tool…. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation Norris et al (2006) found a great variability in the roles played by CHWs in diabetes care[76]. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. Data curation, Aligned to this is a growing use of community health workers (CHWs) to deliver T2DM self-management support with good clinical outcomes especially in … A patient diagnosed with diabetes will need to take additional care of their health. None of the selected studies covered all the purposes mentioned above. J Pers Med. Is the Subject Area "Type 2 diabetes" applicable to this article? Education was the most frequently reported (n = 44) service provided by CHWs in T2DM self-management. In the first model, CHWs are coordinated by intervention managers or research investigators, who are usually not employed by the health facility where the intervention is situated and where coordination is essential for intervention or research implementation. Validation, Diagram showing outcomes frequently targeted and reported in CHW supported self-management of type…, NLM Globally the number of people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has risen significantly over the last few decades. Method: A two-round Delphi study was used to elicit, and assess consensus on opinions from random samples of practice nurses, with a substantial role in the management of diabetes patients and diabetes specialist nurses. Aligned to this is a growing use of community health workers (CHWs) to deliver T2DM self-management support with good clinical outcomes especially in High Income Countries (HIC). Outcome measures in diabetes education intervention should hence not only speak to increased diabetes knowledge but also include self-management and self-efficacy measures. Most studies in this review lasted between 6–12 months and did not identify the need for ongoing training. Thandi Puoane, Roles They will need on-going advice and support about maintaining a healthy diet, keeping active and monitoring their condition. January [cited 2016 Apr 15];8(1):1–7. J Health Care Poor Underserved. Other studies reported improved self-management behavior or self-efficacy as outcome measure using standardized tools. … Models that integrate CHW coordination within the health system and give CHWs access to regular patient care were found to be effective. 2020 Feb 3;10(1):1-4. doi: 10.1093/tbm/ibz199. Studies have observed that increased knowledge does not necessarily translate into changes in self-management behaviour[29,37], and there is a need for further research to answer questions related to the association or lack of it between improved T2DM knowledge, self-efficacy and ultimately glycemic control. From the reviewed studies, only 13 (24%) reported that CHWs were provided training updates in order to support their initial training. Preparing and coordinating CHWs for these roles is crucial and needs further research and strengthening. In the reviewed literature, HbA1c was the most frequently used measure of success in CHW led T2DM self-management interventions. Education and support alone is not sufficient to provide self-management capabilities to T2DM patients. PMID: 11907442 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] MeSH Terms. Based on the findings from our review we have categorized these roles into the triad of education, support and advocacy (ESA). To identify the views of nurses on their current and future roles in care in the community for people with Type 2 diabetes. This is the least reported role because advocacy had different meanings in different studies. One of the more troubling complications of this disease is the risk of developing a foot ulcer. 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