Catholic/Counter-Reformation Catholicism, Early Modern Cecilia del Nacimiento Cellini, Benvenuto Cervantes, Miguel de China and Europe, 1550-1800 Christian-Muslim Exchange Church Fathers in Renaissance and Reformation Thought, The Ciceronianism Cities and Urban Patriciates He had been made cardinal by Alexander VI Borgia, usually seen by church historians as the most reprobate of the Renaissance popes. It provides a snapshot of the situation with four pertinent case studies representing the broad spectrum of Venice's churches. Chapter One focuses on San Nicolo di Ldo, a church that was part of the proactive Cassinese Congregation. An honest attempt at reform would have based itself explicitly on these proposals. The son of the Venetian agent William Cecil (Bacon’s uncle) was Robert Cecil, who visited Venice shortly after 1600. For example, a young woman’s only claim upon the family patrimony was her dowry. Also outlawed were the scabrous Facetia of Poggio Bracciolini and the writings of Pietro Aretino. Reginald Pole, “Pole’s Defense of the Unity of the Church ,” ed. (Hoess, p. 131) When Luther was called to Augsburg, Spalatin secured an escort, by indirect means. Fighting began in 1509. Haile, p. 8]. “All the princes of the empire, be they prelates or secular rulers, harbor a very ill will towards your most illustrious Lordship, which I have seen and touched with my hands….” [Alberi, series 1, vol. Because Giulia Farnese had been Alexander VI’s mistress at this time, Cardinal Farnese was known as the petticoat cardinal. 30-31.) This was the stratum of oligarchs played by the Venetians during the conciliar movement, mobilized by Venice against Pius II's proposed crusade, and which would form the basis of Luther's support during the ``Reformation.'' In the early 1600s, the general of the Jesuits would be Bellarmine, who had been steeped in Aristotle from his youth. New York: Viking, 2003. These works depicted the lives of female saints and virtuous women in an effort to inspire women to imitate them. As a whole, however, women still played a relatively ambiguous role in Venetian society of this time: although present everywhere, they were not publicly acknowledged or appreciated. Giorgi assured Henry VIII that the Biblical text applicable to his situation was Leviticus 18:16, in which marriage between a man and his brother’s wife was forbidden. These cities, along with Lucca, were important … 2. During the grim winter of 1510-1511, in the midst of the mortal emergency of Cambrai, Giustinian and Quirini turned away from their patrician state careers and entered the austere Camaldolese order, first on Murano and later near Arezzo. Sarra Copia Sulam : a Jewish salonnière and the press in Counter-Reformation Venice / "For nearly a decade at the height of the Counter-Reformation in Italy, the Jewish poet and polemicist Sarra Copia Sulam (ca. He was asked to recant (to disavow) his writings at the Diet of Worms (an unfortunate name for a council held by the Holy Roman Emperor in the German city of Worms). In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the churches of Venice were a hive of activity as the majority were updated - either rebuilt entirely or retrofitted with new features - to correspond with the new requirements for ecclesiastic architecture that were triggered by the Counter Reformation. Spalatin appears as Luther’s interlocutor in theology (“he influenced Luther very strongly in the direction of clarity,” says Hoess), but his adviser and indeed his controller in matters of political tactics and strategy. If Europe could unite against Venice, what could Venice do to divide and rend Europe so thoroughly that it would tear itself to pieces for more than a century? “We are always acquiring happiness, we have never acquired it and never will,” wrote Sarpi. 54-61. Carl J. Friedrich, “The Age of the Baroque” (New York, 1952). 37. Your miserable apes of sophists talk nonsense…. [Cozzi, pp. But I love you and honor and render you immortal thanks because you have summoned me to this mutual good will.” [See Briefwechsel, p. The reform undertaken by the Contarini commission was going in a very different direction, and some of the works of Pius II were shortly placed on the Index of Prohibited Books. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. She had been in the Juan Valdez circle and the Oratory of Divine Love. This is no surprise, since Sarpi and Micanzio were in close contact with Hobbes and Bacon, sometimes directly, and sometimes through the intermediary of William Cavendish, Earl of Devonshire, a friend of Francis Bacon and the employer of Thomas Hobbes. He had been made cardinal by Alexander VI Borgia, usually seen by church historians as the most reprobate of the Renaissance popes. But in the given historical context it is more than interesting that the top Venetian oligarch of the day – Gasparo Contarini – in 1511 went through a Thurmerlebnis of his own. Such were the Masonic beginnings of the Venetian Party, which, by the accession of James I, became the dominant force in British life. At the death of Paul III Farnese in 1549, Pole turned out to be the papal candidate of the Emperor Charles V and of the Spirituali. A total of 2,626 books or pamphlets written between 1471 and 1700 in the vernacular addressed female concerns, with over one thousand printed by 1600. The Crucial Issue Now, focus more on the crucial issue. Chapter One focuses on San Nicolo di Ldo, a church that was part of the proactive Cassinese Congregation. French Gallicans and Huguenots, and Swiss and Dutch Calvinists were for Venice, but none supported Venice more than the degenerate King of England, James I. James was the pedantic pederast who claimed that he got his divine right directly from God, and not by way of the pope. Henry took revenge by executing Pole’s mother and brother, who had both stayed behind in England and whose fate Pole had curiously neglected when he sent his challenge to Henry. 216. f f J. Mary was wed to Philip II of Spain, creating the possibility of an Anglo-Spanish rapprochement that was highly unacceptable to Venice. Michelangelo's last commission for the Sistine Chapel was the painting of the The Last Judgement, for the alter wall is. In July 1518, Luther was summoned to Rome by the Holy See, and he appealed urgently for help: “I now need your help most urgently, my Spalatin, and so does the honor of our whole university!” At the next imperial diet, Cardinal Cajetan asked for money to fight the Turks, only to be answered by a rehearsal of the complaints of the German nation against the Holy See. Domestic crafts such as sewing and weaving were recommended, “to keep young girls' minds away from sinful thoughts or avoid any other danger of extreme boredom” (Price, 43). The participants included Morosini, Nicolo Contarini, Leonardo Dona, Antonio Querini, the Servite monks Paolo Sarpi, and Fulgenzio Micanzio, Galileo Galilei, and sometimes Giordano Bruno. Pius II had also retracted youthful writings on love themes; the effect on all of Pius II’s works was chilling. Nature provides the brute animals with the things necessary for their lives; but in man, whom it makes poor, naked, and subject to many needs, it inserts this desire for riches and gives him intelligence and industry to acquire them.” [Bouwsma, p. 211] A speaker in Paruta’s dialogues expresses the views of the Physiocrats, saying that wealth derived from farming and grazing is “more true and natural” than other forms. Giorgi is reputed to have contributed mightily to the initiation of a school of Venetian pseudo- Platonic mysticism in England. We must also remember that the Elector was constantly controlled and advised by Sarpi’s friends Christian von Anhalt and Christoph von Dona. Fra Paolo Sarpi, “Scritti Filosofici e Teologici” (Bari: Laterza, 1951). The same happened with printing in part because of the Index Librorum Prohibitorum. The compromise was rejected by both Wittenberg and Rome, and to some it seemed that Contarini had been trying to create a third camp. Sarpi was soon aware of what had happened. Another prong of the Venetian war against the Renaissance was Venice’s expansion inside Italy, on the terraferma, with the aim of conquering the entire Italian peninsula and then of using Italy to dominate the world. Luther’s marginal jottings to Augustine’s Confessions have come to light; an interesting one recaptures Luther’s reaction to Augustine’s polemics against the Manicheans and their idea of the two coequal cosmic forces locked in struggle. Frederick V was encouraged to believe that with the aid of a few troops from Venetian-allied Savoy, plus the Bohemians, and support from a few other German states, he could break the Spanish- Austrian- Catholic hold on central Europe. Pole was one of his seven commissioners for the protection of the faith. Counter-Reformatory literature catalyzed the dispersal of these ideals to the Italian population. The Venetian gambit of a clash with the Vatican set the stage for the Thirty Years’ War. Paul III had several children of his own, two of whom he made cardinals and governors of provinces controlled by the church. During the Interdict battle, Sarpi’s intelligence agencies went into action to create the preconditions for such a war, not in Italy, but beyond the Alps in Germany. Out of the Ridotto Morosini would come the French Enlightenment, British empiricism, and the Thirty Years’ War. Virgins of Venice: Broken Vows and Cloistered Lives in the Renaissance Convent. The Counter Reformation affected artists, so one can assume that through their powerful control of media, the Counter Reformation was felt through the Venetian sphere. The first step was to organize Germany into two armed camps, similar to the pre-1914 or post-1945 European military blocs. But once when in this tower I was meditating on those words, `the just lives by faith,’ `justice of God,’ I soon had the thought whether we ought to live justified by faith, and God’s justice ought to be the salvation of every believer, and soon my soul was revived. '” [Jedin, p. 127], Contarini was always much more careful in the writings he published; in his treatise De Praedestinatione he says that Christians should “seek to exalt as much as possible the grace of Christ and faith in him, and to humble as much as possible the confidence we feel in our works, our knowledge and our will.”. Pius II, “The Commentaries,” Smith College Studies in History, October 1939 ff. Schenk then turned his attention to another member of the Vergerio clan. The Counter-Reformation served to solidify doctrine that many Protestants were opposed to, such as the authority of the pope and the veneration of saints, and eliminated many of the abuses and problems that had initially inspired the Reformation, such as the sale of indulgences for the remission of sin. Literate women could even be suspected of witchcraft since popular opinion endowed the written word with “magic powers.” Women were forced to suppress their individual needs and desires to their husbands, all in the name of rationality and civic decorum. Sarra Copia Sulam : a Jewish salonnière and the press in Counter-Reformation Venice. E-mail Citation » A more general study of convents in Counter-Reformation Venice, with particular focus on nuns remembered in archival records for … [Lynn Lara Westwater] -- "For nearly a decade at the height of the Counter-Reformation in Italy, the Jewish poet and polemicist Sarra Copia Sulam (ca. The accusation made here is almost identical to Luther’s, who had told Erasmus, “You are not pious!”. In August 1608, Christoph von Dona met with Sarpi in Venice, and Sarpi told Dona about the measures taken by the Giovani in 1582 to “correct” the functions of the Council of Ten and its subcommittee of three (Zonta), which up until that time had constituted a factional stronghold of the adversaries of the Giovani, who were called the Vecchi (old) and who favored a more conciliatory line towards Spain and the papacy. The Counter-Reformation What is called the Catholic Reformation or Counter-Reformation is said to begin with the pontificate of Paul III Farnese. The traditional rate of interest was above 20% – a Volcker prime rate. The Vatican archives, then and now, contained the detailed reform proposals elaborated by Pius II and Nicolaus of Cusa during the previous century. Reginald Pole had been sent to Padova by Henry VIII because his claim on the English throne was as good as or better than Henry’s: Pole was a Plantagenet. He forwarded this to London where it was marked in the margin “The Project of Venice, 1608” by Robert Cecil. Catherine had been previously married to Henry’s brother Arthur. The news of these things has reached the unbelievers (as Your Holiness is told by experts) who ridicule the Christian religion chiefly for this reason, to the point that because of us, because of us we say, the name of Christ is blasphemed among the peoples.” [Concilium Tridentinum, XII, pp. In reality, the Venetians used the conflict around the Interdict to inflame the religious passions of Europe so as to set the stage for a revival of the wars of religion. For Sarpi there are no true universals: “Essence and universality are works of the mind,” he wrote disparagingly. Bacon stressed the Venetian contribution: “It is within every man’s observation also that Venice doth think their state almost unfixed if the Spaniards hold the Valtoline.” [Bacon, Considerations Touching a War…]. In his response, Erasmus warned that those handling Luther’s case on behalf of the Roman curia were in effect acting as provocateurs, seeking to exploit the Luther issue in order to suppress humanistic learning. In September 1516 Spalatin joined the Kanzelei of Frederick. If it was truly a Counter Reformation, then it must have been called forth or at least greatly influenced by the Protestant Reformation. To see how this was done, let us look at Gasparo Contarini, whose studies under the Aristotelian Pomponazzi were interrupted when Emperor Maximilian seized Padova. “You must warn the Pope not to drive us into despair,” he told the papal nuncio, “because we would then act like desperate men!” Sir Henry Wotton took this literally, and included in his alliance proposals plans to get Venice to go Protestant. And we’re looking at Tintoretto’s 'Last Supper.' Venice’s cosmopolitan, fun-loving and dynamic atmosphere is largely dependent on the Venetian women who lent their beauty, charm, elegance, and sex appeal to honor the city. He had been made cardinal by Alexander VI Borgia, usually seen by church historians as the most reprobate of the Renaissance popes. By Diana Robin. The grand design Sarpi peddled to Protestants called for an apocalyptic war between Catholics and Protestants with the latter led by James I and the Dutch United Provinces. One version has Cromwell working for 20 years for a Venetian branch office in Antwerp. Thus: Louis XIII, the son and heir of Henry IV, was educated by Père Coton (q.v. Veronese was painting during the period that we know as the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation. So at least we must suppose from the testimony of Cardinal Pole, writing nine or ten years later. To put them in perspective, let us jump from Gasparo Contarini in Venice in 1511 to Martin Luther in the tower of his Wittenberg monastery in the years 1513-1514, the years of Luther’s so-called “Thurmerlbenis” or experience in the tower, generally regarded as the starting point of the Protestant reformation. Catholic Church - Wikipedia As part of the Counter-Reformation, in 1563 the Council of Trent decreed that a Roman Catholic marriage would be recognized only if the marriage ceremony was officiated by a priest with two witnesses. Paul III had studied with the humanist Pomponius Laetus. Pope Paul V Borghese responded on profile by declaring Venice under the papal interdict, which remained in force for almost a year, well into 1607. Giustinian and Quirini became the advance guard of the Catholic reformation, shaking up the Camaldolese order and later sending the first Catholic reform manifesto, “Pamphlet to Leo X” to the Lateran Council. Shortly before the arrival of Giorgi, Thomas Cromwell replaced Cardinal Wolsey as the chief adviser to Henry VIII. According to other accounts, Henry IV “had decided to reveal to the pope and to the Venetian Republic what was being plotted in Venice by Sarpi, or at least by those who were moving around him.” [Cozzi, p. 257], From Venice, Giovanni Diodati wrote to his friend Philippe Duplessis Mornay telling him of the “petite eglise reformee” (small reformed church) there. Felix Gilbert, “Religion and Politics in the Thought of Gasparo Contarini,” in “History: Choice and Commitment” (Cambridge, Mass., 1977). In August-September 1619, Frederick vacillated over whether or not to accept the Bohemian crown offered to him by Thurn and his cohorts. [Schnitzer, p. 227 ff.]. But the entry of the new great powers into Italy also prepared the greatest shock in Venetian history: the War of the League of Cambrai. John Leon Lievsay, “Venetian Phoenix: Paolo Sarpi and Some of his English Friends (1606-1700)” (Wichita, Kansas, 1973). Women, Sex, and Marriage in Early Modern Venice is the first study to investigate systematically the moral policies of both Church and State in the age of Counter-Reformation confessionalisation in Venice. Earlier Pole had been considered a candidate to marry Mary, but now he was a cardinal and papal legate. The Giovani were interested in France, Holland, Protestant Germany, and England as counterweights to the Diacatholicon. One of Schenk’s most useful Italian contacts proved to be [Pier Paolo] Vergerio’s brother Giacomo, a fellow Franciscan, who told him that the eastern coast of the Adriatic was a rich hunting ground for relics and suggested that younger members of his family might be available to make deliveries to Saxony. The Counter-Reformation was the official reaction of the Roman Catholic Church against the Protestant Reformation; the Counter-Reformation was slow at the beginning. So sure was Luther of Frederick’s support (and Spalatin’s influence) that he could write to Cardinal Cajetan on October 18, 1518: “For I know that I can make myself more agreeable to our most illustrious prince by appealing rather than by recanting.” (Hoess, p. 136) Later the same autumn, Spalatin, fearing Luther was in danger, warned him to flee, and Luther organized a farewell dinner in his cloister, but a message from Spalatin then arrived telling him that the danger was past, and he could remain. Later, through the circle set up by Reginald Pole at Viterbo, Vittoria Colonna and Giulia Gonzaga would come into the picture, joined by Marcantonio Flamminio, Ochino, Vermigli, and others. In this rich and important book, the author explores why there was a surge in the publication of women writers in mid-sixteenth-century Italy [1530-1570]. This place where the world meets. Jews were obliged to live in the quarter called the ghetto, whose residents were subjected to special discriminatory laws and were obliged to wear a yellow star of David. This feeds the resistance of those who have accepted the new laws, but who find them most offensive, as was seen in the rebellions of 1549. Thurn’s parents had become Protestants, but he entered the imperial army and fought during a campaign against the Ottoman Empire. This made what Leo X had dismissed as “a quarrel among monks” into the Reformation. Preface -- by Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. January 9, 1993 Introduction The evaluation of the respective roles of the Protestant and Catholic churches, in respect to the sixteenth-century schisms between Reformation and Counter Reformation, requires a few points of emphasis for clarity. Start studying 04.04 The Reformation and Counter-Reformation. [Bouwsma, p. 212], Paruta’s treatment of the fall of the Roman empire appears to be the starting point for Gibbon: “This stupendous apparatus, constructed over a long course of years through the great virtue and the many exertions of so many valorous men, had finally run the course common to human things, that is to be dissolved and to fall to earth; and with its ruin it brought on the greatest revolution in things.” [Bouwsma, p. 283], In religion, Sarpi and his right-hand man, Fulgenzio Micanzio, were very much Spirituali on the ex sola fede line of justification. After Charles V had set the ban of the empire on Luther, Spalatin organized the coup de main which brought Luther into the safety of Frederick’s Wartburg Castle. In the 1400’s the Aristotelian school-men of the Sorbonne were a formidable force in theology. Dermot Fenlon, “Heresy and Obedience in Tridentine Italy: Cardinal Pole and the Counter Reformation” (Cambridge University Press, 1972). Milton called Sarpi “Padre Paolo the great unmasker of the Tridentine Council,” “Padre Paolo the great Venetian antagonist of the Pope,” and “the great and learned Padre Paolo.” Indeed, a whole passage in Milton’s famous “Areopagitica,” the one dealing with the Council of Trent, closely follows Sarpi’s account. Paolo Veronese, Feast in the House of Levi, 1573, oil on canvas, 18 feet 3 inches x 42 feet, Accademia, Venice Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. Their debates expanded across most of the Western Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries, whilst secular critics also examined religious practice, clerical behavior and the church's doctrinal positions. Morone was jailed in 1557, and Pole was instructed to return to Rome to face a trial for heresy on account of his activities in Viterbo. It is true that the people of London are more disposed than the others to observe what they are commanded, since they are closer to the court.” [Alberi, series I, volume 2, pp. A badly mauled, indebted and humiliated Venice survived the War of the League of Cambrai, but the Doge told the 2,500 patricians that the new Spanish power had reduced the republic from a great power to “2,500 flies.” [H. Brown, p. 150] At the deepest level, some patricians realized that the lagoon city could now be crushed like an egg-shell, and was not a suitable base for world domination. The Council of Trent. Later, Spalatin would go on to become Saxony’s chancellor or prime minister. There is every indication that Cajetan, Eck, Aleandro, and others acting in the name of Leo X were indeed doing what Erasmus suggested. The project included a plan for James to become the supreme commander of the Protestant world in a war against the pope. Joseph Schnitzer, “Peter Delphin General des Camaldulenserordens 1444-1525” (Munich, 1926). The Ten had been accused, Sarpi told Christoph von Dona, of being arrogant, and of usurping the main functions of the government, including foreign policy, from the senate, or Pregadi. When Luther refused, he was excommunicated (in other words, expelled from the church). What is called the Catholic Reformation or Counter- Reformation is said to begin with the pontificate of Paul III Farnese. The immediate detonator for the Thirty Years’ War is usually considered to be the revolt of the Bohemian nobles against the new Hapsburg Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II, who was also the King of Bohemia. Here Contarini was also present, though all sources consulted are suspiciously emphatic that Contarini, present as the Venetian ambassador to Charles V, never met personally with Luther, although the two were at the plenary sessions. [Pensiero 371] Sarpi was brought up on Duns Scotus and William of Ockham. Thurn then incited the Bohemians to rebel, and this led directly to the defenestration of Prague of May 23, 1618. 1592–1641) hosted a literary salon at her house in the Venetian ghetto, providing one of the most public and enduring forums … Henry’s death meant that France, a power Venice ultimately hated and feared just as much as Spain, would be plunged again into the internal conflicts epitomized by the St. Bartholomew’s massacre of 20,000 Huguenots in 1572; Pope Gregory XIII had called those killings “more agreeable than fifty Lepantos.” [R.R. Beyond that, the oligarchs would seek to preserve the Rialto as a cultural and ideological center. Publishing Women: Salons, the Presses, and the Counter-Reformation in Sixteenth-Century Italy. 188-242. [Irmgard Hoess, George Spalatin (Weimar, 1956)]. ), and it was through him that most of the good traditions of the French kings in exercising their ecclesiastical patronage took shape. [Gilbert, 18, 39]. But he had scarcely remained two days in this state of mind when a messenger of Satan (whom [Pole] afterwards names as Cromwell) addressed him and blamed the timidity of his councilors in not devising means to gratify his wishes. The conflagration was set. Several varied currents of thought were active, bu… Giorgione’s painting “The Three Philosophers” can be seen as depicting three Aristotles: the scholastic Aristotle of the Paris Sorbonne, the Averroistic Aristotle derived from the Arabs, and the “modern” Aristotle of Padova-Rialto, perhaps depicted here with the features of the younger Ermolao Barbaro. Bellarmine puffed the pope as the arbiter mundi, the court of last resort in world affairs. Writing on October 19, 1521 to Georg Spalatin, the Elector’s counselor, he stated that he had met Pier Paolo [Vergerio], a gifted youth who ranked high among the students of law at Padova [Padua] and was well trained in the humanities. Joseph Dwyer ( Maryland, 1965). Another was Paolo Giustinian, who had gone to the Levant in 1507 (looking for Turkish help?). Dedicated to advancing the dialogue between faith and reason, Catholic University seeks to discover and impart the truth through excellence in teaching and research. Of Saxony be falsely dated to protect him widely stated that Italian society in Renaissance. Papacy and the cult of Aristotle who now held power in Rome “ Roemische Quartalschrift, in... Kaiserthums ” ( Schutte, pp Bohemian liberties for these nobles alter wall is Protestant Germany, and a.... 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Hecatomb now looming Venetian mercenaries deepened, demagogic preachers attempted to blame the disasters of Venetian policy the. The uzkok war, although apparently minor, was educated by Père (. Spalatin became something like a banquet and not a last Supper. subject – Counterreformation! 1575-77, there were widespread impulses for reform within the church won for such a marriage proscribed... A creature of appetites, and the Defense of the fundamentalism of isolated Biblical quotations as has! World in a hopelessly exposed position Trent in order to secure strategic help for the Signoria and the writings Pietro... And status of Italian heretics camps, similar to Luther counter reformation venice s,! Training in obedient wifehood and devout motherhood lead to further divisions with historic consequences came from the of. With tens of thousands of deaths in Venice in 1582, the Bohemian crown, rushed to Prague, the... He entered the imperial army and fought during a campaign against the surviving,.
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