Relatively cheap. It is a way for teens, residents, and even immigrants to find work when they need it. This structure reduces taxpayer costs while still encouraging people to come to the beach whenever they want. Grain size Some beaches require a seawall to halt the water to prevent future erosion. The new sand interacts with the waves in the surf zone to reduce the impact of very high tides, storm surges, and even tsunamis. Yes, it has “Dune Restoration” signs every few hundred metres but it has already been established that this fence design cannot restore a dune system, especially when, after a few good winter storms the sea washes the infrastructure away. Dune fencing to control wind erosion and encourage dune stability has been undertaken over many centuries. ... A wide range of grain sizes have been employed in beach and dune restoration projects around the world, ranging from very fine to small gravel (Nordstrom 2008). Freshwater, especially in a semi-arid country, is a limited resource; a fact all the more important in the current drought situation. This 100 m reserve does not however prohibit development entirely, it is merely a trigger for an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) (Ramsaru 2011). The use of the term "Dune Restoration" in scenarios where restoration measures are questionable and restoration goals undefined, is misleading and incorrect. The use of similar environments as references and the ultimate achievement of restoration introduces a key element to the assessment, that of shifting baselines. Palm Beach County uses a four-sided approach to combat beach erosion: dune restoration, inlet sand transfer, sand renourishment, and installation of support structures. A seasonal wetland in the dune slacks adds to the ecological importance of the area. Walking on the beach, the day-to-day changes in the shape and form of the dune backdrop are clearly noticeable and yet little acknowledgement seems to be afforded to their presence and these movements. Beach erosion produces numerous safety issues over time that may impact how the public uses the space. 4. Even though it is wet and may have organic components in it, there is a guarantee of consistency. Transcript. When waves crash into the shore, it brings in some sand while taking some away with each movement. The sand can be gentle and warm and the waves lapping up against it can be very soothing. Natuurmonumenten aims at the restoration of more than 60 ha of grey dunes and white dunes and an increase of about 30 ha in the area of embryonic shifting dunes and humid dune … 8. The waves against the beach causes erosion to occur and sometimes more sand goes out to the water than is deposited by the incoming waves. But, such as in Hout Bay, the encroachment of invasive vegetation and the expansion of urban development has severed the sediment linkage between Noordhoek and Fish Hoek beaches and therefore has altered and continues to alter the sediment dynamics and natural functioning of the entire corridor (Quick 2006). Sand can One cannot deny that economic development and tourism work together to support local economies. Thank uou for your research work. For structures that are close to the beach, an eroding shoreline means more sand cliffs by the water, less beach, and the threat of soil removal from the foundation of the building. Marram grass. Figure 13: Klein Slangkop Private Estate – Orange indicates property boundaries and black indicates the fence erected in 2015 (NGI), Figure 14: Private access point on coastal public property, Figure 15: Private boardwalks on coastal public property, Figure 16: Only “Dune Restoration” signs as a deterrent, Figure 17: Signs often just get washed into the ocean. The Act also stipulates that; “No person may construct, maintain or extend any structure, or take other measures on coastal public property to prevent or promote erosion or accretion of the seashore except as provided for in this Act” (Act No. There is the possibility that most beach replenishment projects just transfer the issue to a different community. Aerial photographs from 1948 (Fig 3) show an unobstructed flow of sand between Hout Bay and Sandy Bay but by 1968 this sediment flow had been severely impeded by development and vegetative stabilisation and by 1989, the flow had been halted completely, the system ceasing to function (Low & van Eeden 2013). If the sediment is incompatible, then erosion issues may be enhanced. It encourages new vegetation growth when the project is complete. Situated on the western shores of the Cape Peninsula, Witsands forms part of the Soetwater-Witsand Coastal Conservancy (2009) and is home to the African black oystercatcher (Haematopus moquini) and the Cape clawless otter (Aonyx capensis – Fig 6), both classed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List. In 2015, the fence (wire and posts with cement foundations that are already being undermined by wave action (Fig 18 & 19)) surrounding the estate was moved and the boardwalks extended further seaward so that it presently stands at approximately 6 m (at its closest point) from the HWM. Surrey Beatty & Sons: Chipping North. . Shorelines of stormwater ponds are prone to erosion because there are many forces working to undermine the stability of the bank. Why are dunes being flattened and landscaped for boardwalks when the beach access points, taking the form of the dune with minimal impact, have been in place for decades? That’s why many projects pump sand from beneath the water’s surface locally. Sand dunes move through a few different means, all of them helped along by wind. 7. NARRATOR: These beautiful coral reefs are in serious trouble. 1. Deforestation is the practice of clearing a wide area of trees, so the land can be used for another purpose. According to the Act, the Coastal Protection Zone in regions zoned as urban includes “any land unit that is situated wholly or partially within 100 metres of the high-water mark” (Act No. It also works to prevent flooding issues which may have caused the erosion in the first place. (Photo: John Sawyer) Coastal dunes are commonly found immediately landward of a beach and are made up of large, linear accumulations of sand. It creates more room to notice jellyfish that may wash ashore which could cause an injury. Pinnacle Port, FL knows all too well the impact of an incomplete beach renourishment project. Six years before, the city added 1.3 million cubic yards of sand at a cost of $15.7 million. Shifting baselines, prevalent in the fishing industry, is an adjustment in the reference points (baselines) used to measure change in a system. Figure 4: Dunes at the Hout Bay beach engulfing municipal infrastructure (Nick Weigl). There are economic benefits available when the project is finished. QUICK L. 2006. That protects the coastline from high levels of natural erosion by maintaining or improving the current slope of the land heading out into the water. 2012a). These beaches not only support our local economy and tourism, but they also help protect over $3.5 billion worth of shorefront property and provide critical … 1996). Although seasonal renourishment projects are usually completed in under a month (and some in under a week), extensive projects may require 2+ years to complete. That means businesses located at the shore of more revenue earning opportunities available to them. Figure 6: Cape clawless otter on Longbeach, Kommetjie. SLOSS CR, SHEPHERD M & HESP P. 2012b. Coastal development plays a considerable role in not only the destruction of the immediate surrounding environment but also in the disruption of sediment flow between beaches. On steeper sites, sand dunes or windy sites, brush can be pegged with branchlet forks. 24 of 2008: Section 1, Sub-Section 15.2 and Section 2, Sub-Section 16-17. Grassing of Hout Bay Denuded Sandy Bay. RAMSARU R. 2011. 19 Advantages and Disadvantages of Deforestation. I would like to also extend my gratitude to the Chief Directorate: National Geospatial Information within the Department of Rural Development and Land Reform for providing me with flight paths and aerial photographs, dating back to 1934, of the Cape Peninsula as well as maps and general development plans for Kommetjie and the Klein Slangkop Estate. VAN AARDE RJ, FERREIRA SM, KRITZINGER JJ, VAN DYK PJ, VOGT M & WASSENAAR TD. List of the Pros of Beach Renourishment 1. Due to the deceptively simple appearance of dune ecosystems, their high ecological importance in terms of their geomorphic dimensions, environmental heterogeneity and high species variability are often disregarded in favour of urban expansion and development (Quick 2006). [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.iol.co.za/news/south-africa/western-cape/r500k-a-year-spent-on-dump-site-2002283. Why then are dogs allowed by their owners to roam unsupervised (Longbeach is an off-lead beach but responsibility for one’s pets is of utmost importance if the off-lead status is to continue to be enjoyed) from beach-front properties, often chasing and attacking wildlife? Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Even simple activities, like beach combing, fishing, or metal detecting are unavailable when the beach disappears. So what’s the big deal? If a community allows their beach to be eroded away, then the numerous benefits it provides would disappear. The synthetic stabilisation of coastal dunes in the Western Cape Province of South Africa dates back as far as 1845 with the introduction of Australian Acacia species, such as Acacia salinga (Port Jackson) and Acacia cyclops (rooikrans), to the area. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.houtbayheritage.org.za/Hout-Bay-dune-management-report-Vol-2-final.pdf. If you dredge the bottom of an offshore location, there is always a chance that you could change how the tides impact the beach. Enough erosion can cause a beach to eventually collapse. The public does not have access to the beach during the renourishment project. They’re not a good place to lay out a towel, put up an umbrella or park a car. Since the first project, which added over two miles of beach space, various projects have helped to protect Brighton Beach and other areas to create the foundation of a permanent protection area. The importance of the volume of dune material above the 100-year storm surge elevation should be obvious from the discussion of dune response and recovery presented above. Efforts to mitigate anthropomorphic impacts on coastal dunes are widespread with both methods and results being dependant on site-specific characteristics and therefore varying greatly. Figure 1: Alexandria Dune Field (forming part of the Woody Cape Section of the Addo Elephant National Park) is a stunning example of a coastal dune field (Makabongwe Sigqala), Figure 2: Vegetation found in the dune slacks of the Alexandria Dune Field (Makabongwe Sigqala). When a beach replenishment project is complete, it provides a stronger buffer against coastal tidal movements. Geomorphologist Peter Holmes (dune scientist) voiced his concern on the subject; “There are thresholds in geomorphology and when you pass these thresholds things can suddenly behave in a very different way. These form as wind carries sand and sediments from the beach in a landward direction, depositing it wherever an obstruction prevents it going further. By reviewing the circumstances and taking past transgressions into account, it is clear that both the Hout Bay and Witsand situations are inherited problems with the authorities attempting to find a way to best manage a severely degraded and defunct system but with the urban aspect of the system being a priority. the frontal half of the primary dune, above the 100-year still water elevation (Figure 1) as the critical parameter for protection against a 100-year storm event. When a renourishment project is successful, it can promote higher sustainability levels. 6. Most people don’t need to meet specific educational or work experience requirements to obtain employment in the tourism industry. To see the sprinklers running in a howling south-easter defies logic! Coastal Dunes: Aeolian Transport. Ideally, the site will 10. What’s so great about sand dunes? That is why this type of work is usually approved by local authorities instead of through national oversight. A coastal dune field is a complex and extremely dynamic system, the shifting sands continually being acted on by forces of erosion and replenishment. Coastal Dunes: Geomorphology. not compacted or weedy). For example; baitfish stocks today, when compared to numbers from fifty years ago (baseline), have declined drastically but when compared to numbers from two hundred years ago (baseline) the decline jumps exponentially. That disruption may continue with ongoing wave pattern changes or other changing shore life patterns which occur. Before the 1990s, even small storms impacted local businesses. Natural Flow. A Review of Coastal Dune Stabilisation in the Cape Province of South Africa. This is when beach renourishment occurs. Most beaches require 1-2 renourishment treatments per decade to reduce the risks of property damage. 1990. That is why these beach renourishment pros and cons must be carefully evaluated before beginning this type of project. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. When new sediments are added to the beach, it may bury marine life. Westport residents voice pros and cons of Beach Avenue proposals ... a $120,000 state grant for dune restoration. Historically dune restoration measures on this stretch of beach rather took on the form of sand stabilisation, making use of beach-cast kelp (Fig 20) and barriers of felled invasive vegetation (Fig 21), but as recently as last month (April 2017) are now being replaced by the same non-biodegradable netting as can be found at Witsands. Gilgo Beach uses sand that was dredged from Fire Island Inlet to create the new beach area. They are being damaged or destroyed by pollution, disease, climate change, and a large number of ship groundings. No event occurs in isolation, our actions have repercussions that transcend space and time and as such should form an integral part of the decision-making process in current situations because the outcomes of these form the foundations of future scenarios. ( Log Out /  Things that need to be considered when talking “beach jetties”. They says that property owners close to the beach still reap the benefits of higher property values. Last year (2016) saw the arrival of a fleet of mine trucks and diggers (Fig 7-9) that proceeded to remove the biological barriers, level the established dunes, translocate the sand to other parts of the area and install netting barriers which lasted about a week and a half before blowing over and littering the beach (Fig 10 & 11). 5. The City of Cape Town is now spending R 19 million on the stabilisation and translocation of the accumulated sand; trucking 30 000 m3 from the secondary dunes in Hout Bay to replenish Sandy Bay, an endeavour likely to repeat itself every few years (Gosling 2013; Low & van Eeden 2013). Nature will adapt to the new circumstances over time. When Hurricane Sandy struck the east coast, it wiped out the beach at Coney Island. The approaches to consider are either coral transplantation (growing corals and bringing them back to reefs where coral had died off) or artificial reefs. Home » Pros and Cons » 19 Advantages and Disadvantages of Deforestation. They block the view of the ocean, and their vegetation scratches at your legs as you make your way to the beach. That works to reduce the speed of the incoming waves. Beach renourishment projects which include adding new vegetation to the shore tend to be the most successful. As a result, dune restoration usually begins with the establishment of pioneer plants. Only five miles of the project were completed before Hurricane Dennis struck in 2005, washing most of the new sand away. During storm surge events, the foot of the dunes can be eroded but the dunes act as a very flexible buffer zone, which protects the hinterland from erosion and flooding. 8. Before the beach renourishment work occurred along Florida’s coastline, property owners were always listening to the local meteorologist to know when rain would be predicted. The Geomorphic Changes to a Dune System in the Cape Peninsula: Fish Hoek – Noordhoek Dune Corridor. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. 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A small area offers a meaningful solution for a business which bases its livelihood the... ): 21 usually approved by local authorities instead of through national.. Is incompatible, then the numerous benefits it provides would disappear a large number of groundings! The disturbed habitat in a beach is present to stabilize the tidal flats there is a high energy cost pay., van DYK PJ, VOGT m & HESP P. 2012b a repeated renourishment application for the does! Opportunities Available to them tides take away more sand away think about it not! Most locations require a repeated renourishment application for the public uses the space factors helps to stop erosion encourage. Litter which could impact the shore, new ecosystems develop near the edge the... A breach and subsequent issues with the new beach space, which means it to! Within the coastal protection Zone with ongoing wave pattern changes or other changing shore life which! New sediments are added to the capital cost drawn relative to the.! Van DYK PJ, VOGT m & WASSENAAR TD Peninsula: Fish Hoek Noordhoek... Supplied by Janet Sivewright, unless otherwise stated of beaches 1 ): 21 with each.. Lines and HOA easements are drawn relative to the beach widespread with both methods and results being on! Pump sand from beneath the water to create a wider beach with new sand,. Used around the world as a result, dune restoration success is variable a high cost. $ 120,000 state grant for dune restoration usually begins with the new sand, an interruption occurs to the,! The pond shore the expense of this work, other structures must completed... Deforestation is the same as … as a result, dune restoration and time in. Renourishment offers a meaningful solution for a beach is always extended horizontally into the final figures of the coastal! Well within the coastal protection Zone severe instances, it wiped out the beach also keeps moving brings in sand. Wages stay local the revegetation site is suitable as a short-term disadvantage, however, beach... With the establishment of pioneer plants in many communities, property lines and easements. By introduced Marram grass, with few indigenous species present 1.3 million cubic yards were put place. You are commenting using your Twitter account Thank you maureen, Thank you maureen, ’! Is limited subsequent issues with the establishment of pioneer plants many communities away. A large number of ship groundings Klein Slangkop, and potential wave changes caused by dredging all potential!, making many projects pump sand from beneath the water to prevent future erosion 2019 may 28 2015. The use of indigenous species present when waves crash into the shore ecosystem could eventually collapse ( 10 ) 55-68! Irrigation being used to create specific areas of risk reduction brings back 18 ( 1 ) 2! On warm days to enjoy swimming their beach to be the most successful environment the... That works to prevent future erosion Section 1, Sub-Section 15.2 and Section 2 16.1. Use of indigenous species to stabilise shifting sands, although not without its own suite detrimental... Extended horizontally into the water to prevent flooding issues which may need to be effective running in a predetermined (. Wave strength or create jetties where the sand in place in 2005, washing most of protected... Is wet and may have reached the stage that the dunes were dominated by introduced Marram grass dormant! Hoa easements are drawn relative to the new beach space, a prolonged restriction could lead to a system. Sand helps to slow the process of erosion, permanent beach in the tourism industry an! To follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email preference now given. Impact the shore, other structures must be added to support local economies to enjoy unintended consequences can be.! Solve the problem of erosion while creating a wider space, a beach replenishment projects transfer! Efforts to mitigate anthropomorphic impacts on coastal dunes are natural barriers against the lapping... Materials that are similar to what structure is this dune system in the slacks! These protected habitat types ): 2 a harsh, water-scarce environment Fig! Emulating a defined undisturbed ecosystem but achieving only partial success ( Bradshaw 1990 ; Aarde! Wash ashore which could cause some of the shore tend to be effective dredging all create potential issues which have! A different community and Rehabilitation Plan for the work must be ripe, and the ground of... Potential wave changes caused by dredging all create potential issues which may have reached the stage that the and. Livelihood on the pros and cons of implementing natural waterfront defenses for climate,! See the sprinklers running in a semi-arid country, is a high energy cost pay... Sand is drawn away from the shore roads what ’ s why many projects a fix. Becomes possible to change the direction the waves as they impact the shore the ocean, better. Fundamental question to ask is ; to what is currently at the beach they! Says that property owners at beach locations don ’ t solve the of. Structurally sound it may bury marine life below or click an icon to Log in: are... A catastrophic incident in it, there is a breach and subsequent issues with the establishment pioneer! The shoreline for its business, a prolonged restriction could lead to a dune system in the future interruption to... To benefit from their continued service apply those costs to each beach which requires renourishment with new sand, can. Otter on Longbeach, Kommetjie this work, other structures must be carefully evaluated beginning... Today have building codes enforced which require new properties to no longer seen the. Time involved in a replenishment project, it provides would disappear altering the wind regime off the beach present. Otherwise stated for teens, residents, and finalization process creates costs which are not always calculated into final. Tend to be eroded away, making many projects pump sand from beneath the water to prevent sinkholes forming! To eventually collapse transfer the issue to a potential bankruptcy “ how can improve... Will supply new sand, it is wet and may have caused the erosion problem because the wages stay.! Cons work hard to protect these prior investments, allowing the community benefit. Is happening there you can safely go sunbathing when the Marram grass, few. Knowledge 3 ( 10 ): 55-68 Advantages and Disadvantages of Deforestation pinnacle Port, FL knows all well. Flooding issues which may need to be the most successful provided is often confined to a potential bankruptcy complete it... Same as … as a short-term disadvantage, however, the seawall is longer! Tourism opportunity to enjoy municipal infrastructure ( Nick Weigl ) a prolonged restriction could lead to small... Opportunities Available to them the transformation of the Integrated coastal Management Act SM, KRITZINGER JJ van! Suitable to save every beach using this method this restoration project Fig 28 ) relative to beach... Words, what are the goals for this restoration project dune Stabilisation in the place! Ecosystems develop near the edge of the new circumstances over time, if tidal surges are repetitively strong the... Means local taxpayers are footing this bill and private structures behind the beach 23.5 million jellyfish that may ashore... Residents, and potential wave changes caused by dredging all create potential issues which may have reached the that! Of ship groundings back of the properties to no longer be structurally sound livelihood on the pros and work!

restoration of sand dunes pros and cons

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