Pottery. Athens clearly thought of itself as the leader of the Greeks whose city should embody its high status through grand building projects as well as new walls to surround it. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. The more experienced Rhodians managed to quickly maneuver the six ships to the right, enabling the rest of the fleet to engage. After overcoming some initial confusion, the Rhodians executed the diekplous maneuver against the Seleucid seaward wing. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2013) The Delian League had many great victories like the Battle of Eurymedon, The Thracian Chersonese and at Eion.  In August, after a number of Rhodian sailors caught a disease which spread from the local inhabitants, Eudamus moved his fleet to the mouth of Eurymedon River.  The Rhodians then sailed to Phaselis, a location of strategic importance which would enable them to block any fleet trying to attack their kingdom from Lycia. The Romans demanded that Antiochus withdraw from Europe and restore the autonomous status of Greek city states in Asia Minor. Cimon continued to lead a Delian League force of 300 triremes in the east: 200 Athenian with 100 allied contingents. One of Cimon's greatest exploits was his destruction of a Persian fleet and army at the Battle of the Eurymedon river in 466 BC. Submitted by Joshua J. Mark, Joshua J. Greco-Persian Warsby Kelly Macquire (CC BY-NC-SA). The Persian fleet, not wanting to begin battle before the Phoenician ships arrived, moved into the mouth of the Eurymedon River thinking Cimon would not follow them. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Related Content After overcoming some initial confusion, the Rhodians executed the diekplous maneuver against the Seleucid seaward wing.  Antiochus withdrew his armies from Thrace, while simultaneously offering to cover half of the Roman war expenses and accept the demands made in Lysimachia in 196 BC. The delay was most likely due to wartime shortages.  The defeat at Magnesia and the transfer of the Seleucid fleet from Ephesus to Patara led the garrisons of numerous cities including Sardes, Ephesus, Thyatira and Magnesia ad Sipylum to surrender to the Romans. The Seleucids thus attempted to intercept the Roman fleet before this could be achieved. Following his return from his Bactrian (210-209 BC) and Indian (206-205 BC) campaigns, the Seleucid King Antiochus III the Great forged an alliance with Philip V of Macedon, seeking to jointly conquer the territories of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. Many battles were fought between the Greek city-states during this time even though it was, overall, a period of growth and development – especially for Athens and Sparta. Last modified March 03, 2020. Hannibal used the opportunity to withdraw, evading the enemy ships sent to pursue him. Thank you! The situation of the city was favourable for commerce, and the Cnidians acquired considerable wealth, and were able to colonize the island of Lipara, and founded the city of Corcyra Nigra in the Adriatic. Museum. In the summer of 193 BC, a representative of the Aetolian League assured Antiochus that the Aetolians would take his side in a future war with Rome, while Antiochus gave tacit support to Hannibal's plans of launching an anti-Roman coup d'état in Carthage.  In 196 BC, Antiochus used the opportunity of Attalus I's death to assault cities controlled by the Attalid dynasty. The date of c. 466 BCE, however, seems to make the most sense in light of other events – whose dates are known – which fit with this chronology. Xerxes I did manage to burn Athens but did not defeat the Athenians nor subjugate them as both he and his father had hoped to do. It was fought as part of the Roman–Seleucid War, pitting the fleets of Rhodes under admiral Eudamus against a Seleucid fleet of Hannibal. The period is better understood as the time between the defeat of the second Persian invasion of Greece in 479 BCE and the outbreak of the Second Peloponnesian War in 431 BCE. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom.  Both sides began hastily modernizing their navies, constructing new warships and drafting seamen. Use the lesson called Battle of the Eurymedon River for more on these points of interest: When the battle took place A background of the battle Where and how it was fought; Practice Exams. It took place in either 469 or 466 BC, in the vicinity of the mouth of the Euryme Half of the Seleucid ships were heavily damaged, forcing them to withdraw. One Seleucid septireme was captured and 20 other ships were seriously damaged.  Polyxenidas thus found himself isolated, as he was unable to face the Romans at sea without significant reinforcements. We share high-resolution versions of our original photographs. The battle took place off Side, when Hannibal attacked the Rhodian fleet docked in the mouth of Eurymedon River. Diodorus Siculus gives a different account with more colorful detail: And when Cimon learned that the Persian fleet was lying off Cyprus, sailing against the barbarians he engaged them in battle, pitting two hundred and fifty ships against three hundred and forty. He went as far as to cross the Alps in 218 BCE, despite losing most of his 37 elephants and nearly half of his 40,000 men, in order to launch a surprise attack against the Romans from the north, where they'd least expect it. There he arranged for repairs and general supplies, and added more triremes to his fleet. The truce was signed at Sardes in January 189 BC, whereupon Antiochus agreed to abandon his claims on all lands west of the Taurus Mountains, paid a heavy war indemnity and promised to hand over Hannibal and other notable enemies of Rome from among his allies. 468 BCE. A number of these city-states had no desire to leave the Persian Empire, however, recognizing they enjoyed a level of civil rights, prosperity, and security that no Greek mainland city-state could offer. Despite the emergence of pro-war party led by Scipio Africanus, the Roman Senate exercised restraint. The Gigantes were a race of giants borne out of the battle between Uranus and Kronos This is the version of the battle given by Thucydides and Plutarch. What makes it really exciting, however, is that some of it really happened. Contact us for further information and be sure to make a note of the URL of the photos you are interested in. , The Romans intended to invade the Seleucid base of operations in Asia Minor which could only be done by crossing the Aegean Sea, the Hellespont being the preferable option due to logistical concerns. 62 Meritt, B. D., ‘Epigrams from the Battle of Marathon’ in The Aegean and the Near East (1956) 270 f. Google Scholar. Antiochus countered by claiming that he was simply rebuilding the empire of his ancestor Antiochus II Theos and criticized the Romans for meddling in the affairs of Asia Minor states, whose rights were traditionally defended by Rhodes. The battle of Eurymedon (or Side) of 190 B.C. (2020, March 03). Ariomandes ordered a retreat back into the river where he grounded the ships on the bank and the crews joined with the land forces in forming a defensive position. Artabanus was quickly executed by Artaxerxes I who, having learned that Persian warfare with the Greeks did not end well, opted for a different course of action. This army gathered near the Eurymedon with the plan for the land forces to march up the coast, subduing rebel states, supported by the fleet which would neutralize Cimon. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. He then focused his attention on Asia Minor, launching a successful campaign against coastal Ptolemaic possessions. The Pentecontaetia is often incorrectly understood as “fifty years of peace” when it was not. However, when Cimon continued to bear down on the Persians, they accepted battle. He was the brother of Alcon. Fields denoted with an asterisk (*) are required . Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/article/1516/. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. Athens had created the largest navy in Greece and, under the direction of the statesman Pericles (l. 495-429 BCE), had rebuilt the city, including the acropolis with its Parthenon. , Hannibal's fleet assumed battle formation first, with Hannibal leading the seaward wing while Seleucid nobleman Apollonius commanded the landward wing. Eumenes managed to throw the Seleucid left flank into disarray. On 26 April 191 BC, the two sides faced off at the Battle of Thermopylae, Antiochus' army suffered a devastating defeat and he returned to Ephesus shortly afterwards. Eurymedon fought in the Indian War of Dionysus but he fled when attacked by Orontes. , In July 190 BC, Hannibal ordered his fleet of three septiremes, four hexaremes, 30 quinqueremes and 10 triremes to set sail from Seleucia Pieria along the southern Asia Minor coast. As a result, he was dismissed and ostracized from Athens in 461 BC; however, he was recalled from his exile before the end of his ten-year ostracism to broker a five-year peace treaty in 451 … It was a battle that helped shape the future o… The revolt took five years to put down and, afterwards, Darius I began preparations to punish Athens and Eretria for their interference and also expand his empire by taking Greece. He meanwhile ordered his land troops away from the shore to protect the camp and supplies.  Although Phoenician territories like Tyre and Sidon possessed the necessary combination of raw materials, technical expertise and experienced personnel, it took much longer than expected for the fleet to be completed. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Ancient History Encyclopedia. J.-C., et conduisit plusieurs cités, particulièrement de Carieà rejoindre la ligue de Délos. He then sent his heavily armored hoplites to break the Persian lines. Eurymedon, possible father of Cinyras by the nymph Paphia.  Upon being informed of Hannibal's advance to the west, Rhodian admiral Eudamus gathered a squadron of 13 warships at Samos. All three narratives make clear that the battle was a complete victory for Cimon; the Persian forces were unable to regroup or counterattack at any time afterwards. (268). At the Battle of the Eurymedon in Pamphylia, the Athenians and allied fleet achieved a stunning double victory, destroying a Persian fleet and then landing the ships' marines to attack and rout the Persian army. The Battle of the Eurymedon, also known as the Battle of Side took place in August 190 BC. ca. This includes data values and the controlled vocabularies that house them. It was fought as part of the Roman–Seleucid War, pitting the fleets of Rhodes under admiral Eudamus against a Seleucid fleet of Hannibal.. The specific date is unknown, but it … A great tumult arose among the Persians, and the soldiers of Cimon cut down all who came in their way, and seizing in his tent Pheredates, one of the two generals of the barbarians and a nephew of the king, they slew him; and as for the rest of the Persians, some they cut down and others they wounded, and all of them, because of the unexpectedness of the attack, they forced to take flight. The Battle of the Eurymedon took place between the Athenian-led Delian League and Persia on the Eurymedon River in Pamphylia in Asia Minor. The Seleucids selected 10,000 infantry, 500 cavalry, 6 war elephants and 300 ships to be transferred for their campaign in Greece. He wooed the Spartans and Athenians with vast sums of gold, promising help to Athens while secretly funding a Spartan military build-up. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Consequently, after a great slaughter had occurred on account of the disorder among the barbarians, Cimon, who had previously given orders to the soldiers to come running to the torch which would be raised, had the signal raised beside the ships, being anxious lest, if the soldiers should scatter and turn to plundering, some miscarriage of his plans might occur. Since historians recognize the poor attestation of this period, however, it is possible that Diodorus was working from a source unavailable to the others and his account may actually have some elements of truth to it. was one of two naval battles that marked a turning point in that year's fighting in the war between Rome and Antiochus III. The Battle of the Eurymedon was a double battle, taking place both on water and land, between the Delian League of Athens and her Allies, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I. Ancient Greek stories are pretty exciting. Mark, J. J. Once the city-states were firmly under Persian control again, and Cimon defeated, Asia Minor would have served well in launching a third invasion of Greece. Eudamus picked up individual warships on his way south until he was reinforced by a second Rhodian squadron commanded by Pamphilidas off Megiste, their fleet now numbering 32 quadriremes, two quinqueremes and four triremes. While Antiochus' cavalry overpowered his adversaries on the right flank of the battlefield, his army's center collapsed before he could reinforce it. Historians have often noted that, to the Greeks, the victories at Marathon, Salamis, and Platea were epic in their importance while, to the Persians, they were seen as minor setbacks in reaching an ultimately achievable goal.  Most of Apollonius' ships were heavily damaged, forcing him to retreat, while the Rhodians turned to assist Eudamus whose squadron was slowly losing to that of Hannibal. Additional Maps for the Region. His adversaries on the other hand, could not afford a major defeat at sea, since the manpower to commandeer a new fleet would not be available for months. Cimon, however, moved to attack and Ariomandes, understanding his ships would do better with more room to maneuver, came back out from the river to give battle in open water. , The Seleucid fleet sailed via Imbros and Skiathos, arriving at Demetrias where Antiochus' army disembarked. Other articles where Battle of Lade is discussed: Anatolia: The Anatolian Greeks in the Achaemenian period: …the decisive sea battle at Lade in 495 bce. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. These actions primarily benefited Athens which further alarmed Sparta. Democracy in Athens was refined under the leadership of Pericles. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada.  A combined counter offensive conducted by the Romans and their Macedonian allies erased all of Antiochus' gains in Thessaly within a month. Eurymedon, Battle of the, Turkey, ca. It took place in either 469 or 466 BC, in the vicinity of the mouth of the Eurymedon River (now the Köprüçay) in Pamphylia, Asia Minor. Map Image: Battke of Eurymedon . 08 Dec 2020. He roused himself when Cimon began operations directly targeting the city-states of Asia Minor. The tone and details of Diodorus’ version have been noted as typical of cultural and nationalistic myths and so his account is usually disregarded. Yet the Romans were determined to crush the Seleucids once and for all. It took place in either 469 or 466 BC, in the vicinity of the mouth of the Eurymedon River (now the Köprüçay) in Pamphylia, Asia Minor. Antiochus dispatched Zeuxis and Antipater to the Romans, in order to secure a truce.  As the Roman forces reached Maroneia, Antiochus began preparing for a final decisive battle. And when the soldiers had all been gathered at the torch and had stopped plundering, for the time being they set up a trophy and then sailed back to Cyprus, having won two glorious victories, the one on land and the other on the sea; for not to this day has history recorded the occurrence of so unusual and so important actions on the same day by a host that fought both afloat and on land.  In the early spring of 196 BC, Antiochus' troops crossed to the European side of the Hellespont and began rebuilding the strategically important city of Lysimachia. Scholar A. T. Olmstead sums up the result of the Persian defeat: Eurymedon was decisive…Europe had been lost to the [Persian] empire; and now large numbers of the Asiatic Greeks, together with many Carians and Lycians, were enrolled in the rapidly expanding Delian League. …467 Cimon won the great Battle of the Eurymedon River in Pamphylia (southern Anatolia), a naval victory that made a great impression both in Greece (where it was celebrated by the dedication of a bronze date palm, or phoinix, at Delphi: a punning reference to the defeated Phoenician fleet) and… Read More Xerxes I’s son and successor, Artaxerxes I (r. 465-424 BCE) would resort to less obvious methods of striking at the Greek city-states, notably by fueling the tensions between Athens and Sparta which would lead to the Peloponnesian Wars (460-446 and 431-404 BCE) and, eventually, Athens’ defeat by the Spartans. Party led by Scipio Africanus, the Rhodians executed the diekplous maneuver peace when. 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